1. Belief in Qadaa & Qadar

One must believe that Allah knew everything before it came into being, as well as what would occur afterwards. He then brought them into existence, all in accordance to His Knowledge and Decree. Allah (SWT) says:

Verily, We have created all things with Qadar. [54:49]

Everything which occurred in the past, which is occurring in the present and what will occur in the future is known to Allah before it came into existence. Allah then brought it into being, all in accordance to His Will and Decree. The Messenger of Allah (SWT) said:

“A person is not a believer until he believes in the Divine Decree, its good and its evil consequences – until he knows that whatever happened to him would have never missed him, and what missed him would never have occurred.” [at-Tirmidthi]

This belief does not contradict the fact that one must strive to attain things. To clarify this, if a person wants a child he must do certain things to achieve this goal, such as getting married. After he does all that is in his power, he may be granted what he wishes or not. The reason for this is that a person would realize that what he does to achieve his goal is not in fact the true cause behind it; rather it is the Will of Allah. These ‘means’ to fulfill our goals are also considered from the Divine Decree of Allah. The Prophet may Allah praise him, was asked:

`O Messenger of Allah, do the verses and supplications we recite and the medicine we take to cure ourselves waive the Divine Decree of Allah (SWT)?’ [He replied,] `They are from the Divine Decree of Allah.’ [al-Haakim]

Hunger, thirst and feeling cold are from the Divine decree. One seeks to satisfy hunger through eating, thirst through drinking and coldness by keeping warm. They seek to fend themselves from what was written for them from hunger, thirst and coldness by what was written for them from eating, drinking, and seeking warmth. They seek to prevent one aspect of the Divine Decree with another.

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The Benefits of Belief in the Divine Decree

Through the belief in the Divine Decree, one benefits in the following ways:

[1] Belief in the Divine Measure results in a clear conscience and peace of heart. No room is left for one to feel sad about what results or does not come to be. Uneasiness and unrest of the heart leads to many psychological disorders, such as depression and stress, all of which have a negative result on the body. Belief in this concept prevents and cures these sicknesses. Allah (SWT) says:

No evil befalls on the earth nor in your own souls, but it is in a book before We bring it into existence; surely that is easy to Allah So that you may not grieve for what has escaped you, nor be exultant at what He has given you; and Allah does not love any arrogant boaster. [57:22-3]

 [2] It encourages knowledge and exploration of what Allah created in this universe. Afflictions, such as disease, drive humans to seek a cure, and this is done by searching for the sources of medicine which Allah, the Most High, created in this universe.

[3] It eases the effects of calamities and eliminates the feeling of renret. If someone loses money in a business, this is considered a hardship. If a person is sorrowful after that, this would lead to two hardships: the hardship of the calamity and that of the feeling, of remorse and sorrow. If one believes in the Divine Decree, he would be pleased with the results no matter what. The Prophet (ﷺ) said:

 “The strong believer is better and more beloved to Allah than a weak believer, and in each one there is good. Be keen to do what benefits you and seek Allah’s help, and do not be neglectful in doing so. And if any mishap befalls you, do not say, ‘If only I had only done such and such,’ but rather say, ‘This is from the Divine Decree of Allah, and whatever He Wills He does),’ for indeed, ‘if,’ opens the door for Satan’s works.” [Muslim] [4] It increases one’s dependence upon Allah and removes fear of the creation. Ibn `Abbaas (RA) said

 “I was behind the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) one day and he (ﷺ) said to me: ‘O young boy, I will teach you some words: Guard Allah’s commandments and he will guard you. Guard Allah’s commandments, you will find Him in front of you (with His protection), And If you ask, then ask Allah, and if you seek help, then seek help from Allah. Know that if the whole world was to gather to help you, they would never be able to help you except with something which Allah has already written for you. And if the whole world gathered to cause you some harm, they would not be able to harm you except with something which Allah has already written for you. The pens have been lifted, and the scrolls have dried’.” [at-Tirmidhi]

Belief in the Divine Decree is not, as some mistakenly think, a call to put one’s trust in Allah without striving or fulfilling the means, for the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) replied to a person who asked him:

‘Should I tie my camel and trust in Allah or leave my camel untied and trust in Allah?’ He said, ‘Tie it and trust in Allah’.” [at-Tirmidhi]

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