As for the legislation of Islam, it is, as we described, of a divine origin. The one who legislated it is the Creator of all things, the One who knows what best suits their particular conditions and what rectifies their affairs. No one, no matter what status and station he may achieve. has the right to oppose, change. add, or omit from this legislation. Allah (SWT) says.
Is it the judgment of (the Days of) Ignorance that the, seek? And who is better in judgment than Allah for a people who have firm belief.[5:50] The religion of Islam is a religion whose texts are general, making it suitable for all times and places. It has introduced general principles and teachings which are unalterable; they are not influenced by the passage of time or change of locality, whether they be principles dealing with belief, such as the belief in Allah, His Angels, Books, Messengers, the Last Day, and Predestination; or principles of worship, such as the specific actions of prayer and their timings, the amount to be given in Zakaah (obligatory charity) and to whom it is to be given to, the time of the obligatory Fast, and the characteristics, time and regulations of Hajj.
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Every new matter which should appear in the world must be scrutinized in light of the Qur’an and authentic Sunnah of the Prophet (ﷺ) in order that it be given a ruling. If a clear ruling cannot be taken from the Qur’an and Sunnah of the Prophet (ﷺ) regarding the issue, the pious, god-fearing scholars should exert their effort to derive a textual-based ruling, keeping the Muslim’s interest in mind, and to consider the conditions of his age and society. This is done by examining the general meaning of the verses of the Qur’an and the sayings of the Prophet (ﷺ) and studying their jurisprudential maxims, such as the following:
- All things are considered lawful in the religion, unless as specific or general text renders it to be unlawful.
- Protecting and safeguarding benefits and common interests of society.
- Islam is a religion of ease, which seeks to remove all unnecessary hardship.
- Harm must be avoided.
- Preventing evil by preventing the means through which it spreads.
- Dire needs render unlawful things as lawful.
- Dire needs legalize the unlawful according to the situation.
- Warding harm is given precedence to attaining benefits.
- if one has no choice but to do one of two evils; he should do the lesser of the two.
- Harm should not be warded off with a similar harm.
- Specific harms should be withheld for the sake of warding off general harms.
There arc many other jurisprudential maxims similar to these. Upon making a textual-based ruling, the scholar should not be affected by his desires; nor should he utilize it to gain some personal benefits; he should try his best to benefit society without opposing a textual proof, for Islam is suitable for every age, and fulfills the necessities of every society. There are no prejudices in the religion of Islam. Every item of its legislation applies to everyone; there is no difference between the rich and poor, noble and commoner, ruler and subject or white and black. Everyone is equal in relation to the implementation of Shari’ah law.
During the time of the Prophet (ﷺ) a woman from the clan of Makhzoom from the tribe of the Quraish (the most noble clan of the most noble tribe) committed theft.
Some of those around him said, “Who will intercede with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) on her behalf?” Others said, “Who can be so bold other that Usaamah bin Zaid, the beloved of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ).” Usaamah tried to intercede, but the Prophet (ﷺ) replied, “Do you trying to intercede in one of the set punishments of Allah?”
He then stood and addressed them, saying:
“O People, the thing which destroyed those before you was that if one of their noble committed a theft, they did not punish him, but if one of their common folk stole, they established Allah’s fixed punishment upon him. By Allah, if Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, committed a theft, I would cut her hand off” [Muslim]
(8) The textual sources of the religion of Islam are still present today in their original forms, free from any omission, addition, or substitution. The main sources of the religion of Islam are the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Messenger (ﷺ).
The Qur’an at present is still in its original form, as it was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ), with the same letters, verses, and chapters. It has not been altered in the least.
The Prophet (ﷺ) assigned scribes from the best of his companions to write what had been revealed to him, such as ‘Ali Mu’aawiyah, Ubay bin Ka’b, and Zaid bin Thaabit. Whenever the Prophet (ﷺ) received revelation, he ordered his scribes to record what was revealed to him, informing them exactly in which chapter and verse to place it. The Qur’an was memorized and preserved in books as well as in the hearts of the Muslims.
Muslims paid great importance to the Book of Allah. They raced and competed with each other to learn and teach it, all in order to receive the reward which the Prophet (ﷺ) promised:
“The best of you are those who learn the Qur’an and teach it.” [al-Bukhari]
They spent their time and wealth in order to serve, take care of, and memorize the Qur’an. The Muslim masses transmitted it from one generation after the next (keeping in mind that its memorization and recital is considered an act of worship.) The Prophet (ﷺ) said:
“Whoever recites one letter of the Qur’an, he will receive ten rewards. I do not mean that ‘Alif Laam Meem’ is one letter, rather, ‘Alif’ is a letter, ‘Laam’ is a letter, and `Meem’ is a letter.” [at-Tirmidhi]
The second source of legislation is the Sunnah of the Messenger (ﷺ) which acts as an explanation and clarification of the Qur’an. Allah has protected it from adulteration and all types of distortion by means of trustworthy and pious scholars who sacrificed their lives to study the hadeeths of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and its chains of narration, investigating whether they can actually be attributed to him or not. They looked at each individual in the chain of narration and researched them, seeing if they were pious and trustworthy. They sifted all the hadeeths which were narrated from the Prophet (ﷺ) and did not accept anything except after it was proven authentic. These hadeeths reached us free of any fabrication. Whoever wishes to research the methodology employed in the preservation of the Sunnah, they may refer to the books of the science of Hadeeth. It will become clear to anyone who researches this science that there is no doubt concerning the narrations which have reached us, and they will also realize the great effort made by scholars in the service of the Prophet’s (ﷺ) Sunnah. The religion of Islam regards all people as equals in their nature, whether in regards to sex, color, or language. The first human who Allah created was Adam (AS). He is the father of all mankind. He then created from Adam his wife, Eve, the mother of all humanity, and made them to procreate. In their original nature and creation, all humans are equal. Allah (SWT) says:
O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women. And fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual [rights], and [do not cut the relations of] the wombs (kinship). [4:1]
The Prophet (ﷺ) said:
“Indeed Allah has rid you of the [different types of] pride [you unjustly felt] during yours days of ignorance before Islam. and [specifically] the ignorance of taking pride in your ancestry. [People are either two types:] a believer who fears Allah, or a disbelieving and doomed sinner. All people are children of Adam, and Adam [was created] from soil.” [al-Tirmidhi]
All previous and future human generations are from the progeny of Adam. All humans had one religion and one language, but as they grew in number, they spread across the earth and inhabited different lands, the result of which was that they differed in color, nature, and spoke different languages. This also led them to differ in their thoughts, lifestyles, and beliefs.
Allah (SWT) says:
Mankind were but one community [i.e. on one religion], then they differed (later), and had not it been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord, it would have been settled between them regarding what they differed. [10:19]
The teachings of Islam render all people equal, giving no consideration to their sex, race, language, or nation. All are equal in front of Allah. They only differ in regards to their implementation of the religion of Allah in their lives. Allah (SWT) says:
O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and We made you into nations and tribes so that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you in the sight of Allah is he who has the most piety and God-consciousness. [49:13]
According to the equality, which is acknowledged in Islam, all humans are regarded as equal in their freedom, though regulated by the religion, so as not to allow animalistic liberty, doing whatever they please.