Freedom and the “Hidden Life”

Freedom and the Hidden Life

“Creators should have nothing to do with Islamic fashion,” asserted Pierre Bergé, co-founder of Yves Saint Laurent in an interview with radio station Europe 1. “Designers are there to make women more beautiful, to give them their freedom, not to collaborate with this dictatorship which imposes this abominable thing by which we hide women and make them live a hidden life.”

The “abominable thing” Bergé is referring to — modest Islamic women’s clothing — has recently been appropriated by major designers including DKNY, Dolce & Gabbana, Tommy Hilfiger, and Marks & Spencer. Fashion brands are gradually recognizing that they have a lucrative, untapped market in Muslim consumers and are producing clothes to satisfy that profitable niche. From full-body swimsuits and ankle-length dresses to abâyas and headscarves, the fashion world is starting to incorporate loose and modest garments that are a major departure from the typical sexy runway fashions. But not everyone is happy about it.

In her April 14, 2016 article “What Freedom Looks Like” for the New York Times, author Vanessa Friedman explores the backlash that is coming from some people in France’s fashion industry and government.  Referring to Pierre Bergé, Friedman writes, “He … implied that the designers were exploiting a misogynist system that, for financial gain, forces women to hide their bodies.”

Laurence Rossignol, the French minister for women’s rights, jumped into the fashion fray. In an interview with BFTV, she likened modest clothing to a prison: “What’s at stake is social control over women’s bodies,” she said in an interview on the French news network. “When brands invest in this Islamic garment market, they are shirking their responsibilities and are promoting women’s bodies being locked up.”

Rossignol then infamously compared Muslim women to “negroes” who supported slavery, causing a global uproar and accusations of racism. She later recanted that particular part of her statement.

Reading the statements of these two French public figures, I am torn between derision and disgust. On one hand, I wonder how they cannot see the irony of their statements. Bergé laments a “misogynist system that, for financial gain, forces women to hide their bodies,” but apparently fails to see any problem with a high-profit fashion industry that has, for centuries, persuaded women to reveal their bodies in order to serve as sex objects, sell clothes, and entice the male gaze. When Rossignol decries “social control over women’s bodies,” doesn’t she see how women’s bodies have been controlled in various ways throughout Western history? Isn’t banning the headscarf in French schools an example of “social control?” Isn’t requiring all swimmers in French pools to wear tiny, tight, and extremely revealing swimsuits another example?

On the other hand, I am disgusted with Bergé’s and Rossignol’s depressing and incorrect depiction of Muslim women. The image they are associating with a Muslim woman is of an uneducated, voiceless, oppressed person who has no say in her wardrobe or her life choices. Haven’t they observed the countless Muslim women doctors, professors, engineers, intellectuals, businesswomen, and highly educated and talented women who choose to cover? Don’t they see the millions of empowered Muslim women around the world who have the “freedom” to uncover in their country of residence if they wish, and yet often willingly embrace a modest wardrobe?

Unlike Bergé and Rossignol, I view all women as intelligent beings with free will and intellect. I do not think they are so easily duped or forced into dressing or acting certain ways. Even when the runway models are waif thin and wearing extremely revealing clothing, Western non-Muslim women can still choose to dress however they wish. I would not, as Bergé does, define them as “forced” to do things. And although the fashion industry has been criticized widely for creating and perpetuating unrealistic ideals of beauty, I still would not describe Western women as being “locked up” by the shackles of fashion. They have a choice and a mind, should they choose to use them.

What about Muslim women? Do we have any choice in our clothing? Are we, as Rossignol said, “consenting slaves”? Are our long dresses, tunics, and abayas truly a prison for us? Do we need to be liberated by the likes of Bergé and Rossignol?

First, if the opponents of Islamic clothing bothered to ask Muslim women their opinion, they would learn something that might surprise them: the vast majority of Muslim women who dress modestly do it willingly and for one reason: to please their Creator.

“Yes, but what if their husband or father or government is forcing them to cover?” someone is bound to argue. To that question I would reply, “A Muslim woman’s duty to cover is mandated by her Creator. Regardless of what others in her life might do or say, dressing modestly is an act of obedience to Allah. Some women might indeed be exploited or mistreated by individuals or governments, but any oppression of women is un-Islamic.”

Besides, do people seriously think that non-Muslim women are free from oppression, coercion, and control? What about uniforms that require women to show their legs, arms, and chests to look appealing for customers? What about egotistical husbands who want their wives to look like “arm candy” at all times? What about mothers who constantly pressure their daughters to lose weight, wear makeup, and squeeze into the latest styles so that they can find a husband, thrive socially, or be a “credit” to their parents? Aren’t these females victims, too?”

So let’s look at a realistic view of Muslim women. Of course, there are some Muslimahs who choose not to cover at all, and their freedom of choice is obvious. The majority of Muslim women who do dress modestly do so with their eyes wide open. Their goals are the noblest ones possible: To please their Creator and to earn Paradise. By covering their bodies, they are eschewing public opinion, pop culture, and a superficial understanding of beauty. They are refusing to exhibit their attractiveness or to sell their bodies. Their faith tells them that their worth is not based on their outward appearance, but on their character and morals. Their inner beauty (the most important one) is apparent in their actions and manners, and their outward beauty is revealed on their own terms, only to those who can be entrusted with it. That is empowerment, not prison.

Bergé and Rossignol would like to cast themselves as super heroes whose noble task is to liberate the poor Muslim women who are living what Bergé calls “a hidden life.”  What, I would ask them, is wrong with a hidden life?  Should everything be made public? Aren’t there certain things that even French people would like to keep private?  Why should women’s bodies and beauty be expected to be on display for other’s enjoyment? Are men entitled to that? If, theoretically, all women started dressing modestly, who, exactly, would find that disappointing? Is this whole issue really about women’s feelings and empowerment, or about men’s insistence on keeping them half undressed?

If a woman chooses to cover her own body in compliance with her faith, isn’t that her right, her freedom?

It comes down to a matter of semantics, in a way. What some people call an “abominable thing,” others call “modesty.” What some call “locked up” others call “liberated.” Even the very first word of Bergé’s quote proves that he has a completely different mindset from a Muslim. He uses the term “creators” to describe designers like himself. It is their duty, asserts Bergé, to “make women more beautiful and to give them their freedom.” What a lofty goal for mere mortals with a flair for design!

Muslims, of course, have a completely different definition of “Creator.” We live our life to please the One Creator, Allah, and our beauty and freedom are gifts from Him and contingent upon Him. No miniskirt or makeup can make us beautiful if we are rotten on the inside.  No politicians or fashionistas can free us if our hearts are slaves to a false god. Therein lies the crux of the matter and why Bergé and Rossegnol will never see why our freedom and our power are in the very garments they abhor.

 

Written By

Laura El Alam is a wife and mother of five in Southern California. She is a writer for London-based SISTERS Magazine and Aboutislam and was previously a columnist for InFocus News. She embraced Islam in 2000.

"You are invited to respond to the contents of the article and to engage in conversation about the issues raised."

105 Comments

  • Thanks for sharing that article. I’ll admit I shared many of those misconceptions before I met you. Thank you for educating those of us who are ignorant.

  • Thanks for sharing that article. I’ll admit I shared many of those misconceptions before I met you. Thank you for educating those of us who are ignorant.

  • Thanks for sharing that article. I’ll admit I shared many of those misconceptions before I met you. Thank you for educating those of us who are ignorant.

  • Uh, we don’t have to take those jobs or listen to our husbands or family. We don’t have to obey them. There has never been a law requiring a certain amount of skin to be shown. The same cannot be said for Islamic countries. We also need to have conversations about the pressure to veil and forced hijab before we come from a place of privilege and talk about hijab being a “choice”.

  • Uh, we don’t have to take those jobs or listen to our husbands or family. We don’t have to obey them. There has never been a law requiring a certain amount of skin to be shown. The same cannot be said for Islamic countries. We also need to have conversations about the pressure to veil and forced hijab before we come from a place of privilege and talk about hijab being a “choice”.

    • Jasmine, problems or issues are generally the result of culture or individual Muslims, not the religion. Thanks for what you shared, however. Sis Zainab, I agree with her that non Muslim women, especially in the West, in general, can’t be compared to certain groups of Muslim women where oppression, coercion, and control is concerned. Yes, there are examples, but I don’t think it’s as pervasive as it is in as many areas of the Muslim world.

  • Uh, we don’t have to take those jobs or listen to our husbands or family. We don’t have to obey them. There has never been a law requiring a certain amount of skin to be shown. The same cannot be said for Islamic countries. We also need to have conversations about the pressure to veil and forced hijab before we come from a place of privilege and talk about hijab being a “choice”.

    • S. E. Jihad Levine You can’t use that line on me. I’m well aware of the difference between culture and Islam and I’m also aware that Islam plays a huge role in shaping culture. Don’t use typical apologist lines that I’ve heard 1000 times.

  • as a modest dresssing person who is not Muslim…. most of us on the modest dress groups actually are having trouble convincing our husbands to stop asking us to wear shorter skirts, not the other way around….

    • My older daughter is quite modest and has been pretty vocal about dressing how it pleases her. One of her favorite characters is Wednesday Addams and she really likes Victorian-inspired clothing.

  • as a modest dresssing person who is not Muslim…. most of us on the modest dress groups actually are having trouble convincing our husbands to stop asking us to wear shorter skirts, not the other way around….

    • My older daughter is quite modest and has been pretty vocal about dressing how it pleases her. One of her favorite characters is Wednesday Addams and she really likes Victorian-inspired clothing.

  • as a modest dresssing person who is not Muslim…. most of us on the modest dress groups actually are having trouble convincing our husbands to stop asking us to wear shorter skirts, not the other way around….

    • My older daughter is quite modest and has been pretty vocal about dressing how it pleases her. One of her favorite characters is Wednesday Addams and she really likes Victorian-inspired clothing.

  • There is a huge difference between someone in the states chosing to dress modestly and a woman who is forced to wear a sack over her because she will be stoned to death if she doesnt

    • Ah, indeed. But two things: 1. Why must a woman who chooses to cover be in the states for it to be “different” and her choice? Many women around the world choose to dress modestly in non-backward countries (like Saudi Arabia, which is, btw, the only country where stoning is a thing…). 2. If you read anything on islamwich (where myself and Theresa Corbin are contributors), you’ll find that the culture of many people who live in historically Muslim countries is, half the time, entirely against Islam, but their governments have them trapped in the dark ages.

    • You’ve missed the mark entirely. Maybe you should try reading the article before making such a comment. Or maybe even just read the opening paragraph as I posted it. And no legit government on earth stones women for not wearing hijab.

    • (when he said sack, I assumed he meant abaya, which is required, unfortunately, in Saudi Arabia. but i don’t know that stoning is their punishment for not)

    • I’ve heard that in Saudi, you might be jailed but usually they will give you a garment to wear. (I’m not sure the commenter would know the dif between a hijab, an abaya, or an elephant.)

    • I dress as I choose to dress. No one forces me to cover my body. That is the true freedom. I do not have the need to dress as other women so that I can be accepted in the male dominated western world. My body is my own.

  • There is a huge difference between someone in the states chosing to dress modestly and a woman who is forced to wear a sack over her because she will be stoned to death if she doesnt

    • Ah, indeed. But two things: 1. Why must a woman who chooses to cover be in the states for it to be “different” and her choice? Many women around the world choose to dress modestly in non-backward countries (like Saudi Arabia, which is, btw, the only country where stoning is a thing…). 2. If you read anything on islamwich (where myself and Theresa Corbin are contributors), you’ll find that the culture of many people who live in historically Muslim countries is, half the time, entirely against Islam, but their governments have them trapped in the dark ages.

    • You’ve missed the mark entirely. Maybe you should try reading the article before making such a comment. Or maybe even just read the opening paragraph as I posted it. And no legit government on earth stones women for not wearing hijab.

    • (when he said sack, I assumed he meant abaya, which is required, unfortunately, in Saudi Arabia. but i don’t know that stoning is their punishment for not)

    • I’ve heard that in Saudi, you might be jailed but usually they will give you a garment to wear. (I’m not sure the commenter would know the dif between a hijab, an abaya, or an elephant.)

    • I fully understand that women will chose with their own free will to cover themselves, not hating, just stating that what’s a choice for u is forced onto others in other countries, and it’s not just Saudi Arabia

    • I lived in a small village in Egypt for four years, surrounded by women who chose to dress modestly among many women who didn’t. Most women in Egyptian cities wear skin tight clothes and hoards of makeup with no modesty at all. Not my Egyptian friends. No, they chose to dress in a way that endangered them . In case you don’t read international news, when Sisi came into power last year, women who wore “too much clothing” were being attacked.

  • There is a huge difference between someone in the states chosing to dress modestly and a woman who is forced to wear a sack over her because she will be stoned to death if she doesnt

    • Ah, indeed. But two things: 1. Why must a woman who chooses to cover be in the states for it to be “different” and her choice? Many women around the world choose to dress modestly in non-backward countries (like Saudi Arabia, which is, btw, the only country where stoning is a thing…). 2. If you read anything on islamwich (where myself and Theresa Corbin are contributors), you’ll find that the culture of many people who live in historically Muslim countries is, half the time, entirely against Islam, but their governments have them trapped in the dark ages.

    • You’ve missed the mark entirely. Maybe you should try reading the article before making such a comment. Or maybe even just read the opening paragraph as I posted it. And no legit government on earth stones women for not wearing hijab.

    • (when he said sack, I assumed he meant abaya, which is required, unfortunately, in Saudi Arabia. but i don’t know that stoning is their punishment for not)

    • I’ve heard that in Saudi, you might be jailed but usually they will give you a garment to wear. (I’m not sure the commenter would know the dif between a hijab, an abaya, or an elephant.)

    • I dress as I choose to dress. No one forces me to cover my body. That is the true freedom. I do not have the need to dress as other women so that I can be accepted in the male dominated western world. My body is my own.

  • Wow… who here is from the middle east … I’ll talk to those women. Who can tell me that if they chose not to wear the hijab (yes I know the difference) what the consequences would be… go ahead…

  • Thanks for sharing, I posted link on my blog. For me, Hijab makes me feel fabulous, confident, protected, respected. Wouldn’t go back for all the money in the world.

  • “Is the hijab a symbol of misogyny or modesty? It can be both—that is the paradox of the hijab. Binary discourse on headscarves doesn’t reflect the realities of how the symbol is used across the world. It is not wrong to view it as a sign of oppression against female autonomy and sexuality. That reality exists, either institutionalized or enforced in family and community honor codes. However, many women willingly wear it of their own accord as an expression of identity. Theology may not even be relevant.

    Let’s be honest about this spectrum of experiences before demonizing or glorifying it.” http://psuvanguard.com/the-paradox-of-hijab/
    Naush Rebooted

  • 😂 what most of you to fail to realize is that Allaah God says in the Quran to cover SO as to be known as believing women. So most if not all of us cover BECAUSE we are obeying Allaah and are MUSLIM. We want to be known as believers of Allaah and Islam and Quran and we WANT to obey our Creator and seek His Pleasure. Not the whims and fancies of His creation.

  • So it’s ok to force or legislate women to take off their clothes? What is the difference between you and those people or governments that force women to cover? No difference. You both think you’re right.

  • ^”By framing the headscarf as a matter of following the command of the creator, the unstated message is that not covering disobeys God. This rigid interpretation helps me understand why states like Saudi Arabia and Iran, as well as groups like the Islamic State, feel sanctimonious in their brutal enforcement of veiling. To them, the hijab is the unofficial sixth pillar of Islam, a commandment that must be implemented when a society lives under Shari’a, or Islamic law. Those who transgress are faced with fines, violence or even murder.

    The Muslim woman who does not live under such circumstances, still faces the blurred line between choice and dogmatic coercion. The veneer of “choice” should be dropped if headscarves are taught as a divine obligation. Obligation, by definition, removes choice.

    Further, the term hijab itself is a misnomer. In Arabic, hijab is translated as “barrier,” “curtain” or other similar derivatives. It never means headscarf.”

  • Jasmine, problems or issues are generally the result of culture or individual Muslims, not the religion. Thanks for what you shared, however. Sis Zainab, I agree with her that non Muslim women, especially in the West, in general, can’t be compared to certain groups of Muslim women where oppression, coercion, and control is concerned. Yes, there are examples, but I don’t think it’s as pervasive as it is in as many areas of the Muslim world.

  • S. E. Jihad Levine You can’t use that line on me. I’m well aware of the difference between culture and Islam and I’m also aware that Islam plays a huge role in shaping culture. Don’t use typical apologist lines that I’ve heard 1000 times.

  • Yeah, I genuinely feel the framing of the hijab as a choice is a hijack of liberal feminist rhetoric (‘xyz’ is my choice – therefore it is liberating). This completely ignores the laws, cultures and customs in place when women make this choice. Can you disconnect how women dress from the society around them? No. I’d love to see this ‘choice’ that’s made in some obligation-free vacuum, esp. considering Islam itself mandates the hijab and some Muslim countries do too. But. Let’s not up-hold Eurocentric gendered clothing as ‘choice’ either: the decision to wear make-up, or put on clothes that reinforce object-hood are not ‘choices’ either. The discussion is actually more complex than this piece.

  • “They say, “Oh, poor girl, you’re so beautiful you know
    It’s a shame that you cover up your beauty so.”
    She just smiles and graciously responds reassuringly,
    “This beauty that I have is just one simple part of me.
    This body that I have, no stranger has the right to see.
    These long clothes, this shawl I wear, ensure my modesty.
    Faith is more essential than fashion, wouldn’t you agree?”
    This hijab,
    This mark of piety,
    Is an act of faith, a symbol,
    For all the world to see.
    A simple cloth, to protect her dignity.
    So lift the veil from your heart to see the heart of purity.

    They tell her, “Girl, don’t you know this is the West and you are free?
    You don’t need to be oppressed, ashamed of your femininity.”
    She just shakes her head and she speaks so assuredly,
    “See the bill-boards and the magazines that line the check-out isles,
    with their phony painted faces and their air-brushed smiles?
    Well their sheer clothes and low cut gowns they are really not for me.
    You call it freedom, I call it anarchy.”
    This hijab,
    This mark of piety,
    Is an act of faith, a symbol,
    For all the world to see.
    A simple cloth, to protect her dignity.
    So lift the veil from your heart to see the heart of purity.
    Lift the veil from your heart and seek the heart of purity.”
    Dawud Wharnsby, “The Veil”

    • The origins of Islam were very feminist in nature. Modern interpretations of Shariah have largely disregarded women and reduced their status. In my mind she is trying to remind us of the status of women who were contemporaries of the Prophet PBUH. When women study their history and religion, they are empowered to their full rights in Islam.

    • I am a Salafi woman who strongly believes in returning to the Quran and Sunnah in order to uphold women’s rights and fight against the numerous examples of ingrained misogyny in our cultures and communities. Feel free to read through the page in order to get an understanding of the types of things I write about.

    • I get it now. So your usage of the term feminism is basically a resistance to the cultural practices that are not part of Islam and struggle to ensure that Muslim women get those rights that are given to them by Islam.

    • I am a Salafi woman who strongly believes in returning to the Quran and Sunnah in order to uphold women’s rights and fight against the numerous examples of ingrained misogyny in our cultures and communities. Feel free to read through the page in order to get an understanding of the types of things I write about.

    • Dear sister, with due respect for what you are endeavoring to achieve but using the term “feminist” is probably not necessary. It is also comes from a Western concept essentially (and a bit simplistically) because womans rights were ignored. In Islam Allah taala gave us our rights; they are ingrained in the Quran, Sunnah and the Shariah but the problem is we have strayed.

    • Now days wearing tight jeans and tight blouse but, Covering your hair is considered following the proper way to dress 👗 when in fact it is fashion as that is not the way to dress according to the Qur’an and shariah law . As an islamic believer you should follow the law of the Qur’an not fashion . I am a convert and had no issue giving up the way i dressed as i now feel much more self respect for myself . No one forced me .and the make up 😱wow . Who are you under that mask ? Are you ashamed to look yourself as Allah created you?

      • Syed, can I ask you what you think feminism is? For me feminism is about recognising women as real people, with their own experiences, minds and desires.
        So when you say salafi ideas are the opposite of feminism then it implies that salafism must promote the idea that women are objects – machines that men use to make sure their house is clean, their desires are fulfilled and to give them children. In my opinion that just is not true, and if you read other articles on this page then you can see great stuff about women and their relationships with god and their communities, rather than just as a backdrop to men’s lives.

  • A guy asked me why women who dress like me don’t like to show off their body more and I replied with our body is none of your business. Then he said “I’m a 21 year old guy, I like looking at women”. I’m still flabbergasted till this day.

  • assalam u alaikum wa rehmatullaahe wa barkaatahu… I really like ur page.. excellent research and amazing work done… May Allah bless u… Jazakallahu khair for all ur efforts

  • The Western women are victims too in their own way but they don’t face disfigurement or death at the rate Muslim women do for defying the social customs. I would also like to point out that covering up is not synonymous with modesty. Consider that prostitutes in Muslim countries also wear the hijab. I would also like to point out at least by my experience most Muslim girls did not put the hijab on by choice as adults as an empowered choice to follow their creator. They were told to by their families and socially conditioned or if in a Muslim country- have to in order to get by in their societies. It is one of the greater hypocrisies not spoken about much in Muslim circles. Even moderate Western ones. One commentor ( I forgot her name) says the hijab privatises sexuality- if that is so- little girls shouldn’t be wearing them ( nor should they be in beauty pageants ). Other hijab apologists try to take the piss out of women who are uncovered in order to justify themselves. One thing that especially annoys me is the attitude amongst Muslims ( mostly men, but women too) is that women who are uncovered are inferior or loose somehow. And considering this covering should be a choice I have seen many Muslims on social media vilify Muslim male celebrities whose wives do not wear hijab as if the wife is their property. It was also on posts unrelated to hijab. The issue is complex to be sure. I think the biggest issue though is basically how women are treated in Muslim societies if they don’t cover and the fact that despite covering the sexual harassment on the streets is a million times worse than I have ever seen or experienced in Western countries.

    • It goes the other way around too. For example, quite a number of people who don’t wear a hijab view those who do as inferior, ignorant, backward and oppressed; even if they chose to wear it. I was walking with friends wearing hijabs, through a shopping area in Sydney, Australia, when a woman went on a rant at me, saying “What are you looking at you stupid b******? Haven’t you seen someone who doesn’t dress like you before? (You dress like you’re from) a freak show.” I wasn’t even looking at her until she talked. Funnily enough, I have friends and family who don’t wear hijabs, and I don’t say anything or make them uncomfortable for what they wear. If everybody could just respect one another, the world would be a better place.

    • The basic realty is that women face abuse and death, mostly from an intimate person- father, husband etc. This is universal. I read all the time abusive men isolating their wives, telling them how to dress, if they can work, who they can talk to, etc all over. It is not about the dress or undress really but about deficient human beings who hard others. . None of us a free from cultural norms. So really saying who” chooses” is relative. We are all affected.

    • I disagree. I’m born and raised here in the Us and Canada. All the women and girls I’ve known for the past 40 years wear the hijab out of their own choice and to please their creator. The world is changing. Social customs don’t apply in the west – and soon they won’t back home either.

    • I know Muslim women who wish to dress modestly but their husbands discourage them and so they choose to not do it. I also know non Muslim and non Muslim women who have excessive pressure to look pretty and dress provactively because of their husbands… so you see women are subject to pressures irrespective of where they come from. It’s just a different kind depending on the culture/subculture. That is the unfortunate part. I chose to wear hijab myself after I moved to the west almost after a year. Moving out of the society I grew up in helped me make that decision for myself. I had a hard time when I first went back to visit. Because I knew exactly how I am being perceived. So you see these social pressures exist for women… for all women unfortunately.

    • True I am not denying the West faces its own problems but I refuse to acknowledge the argument when we are specifically discussing the plight of muslim women as it is deflection to our issues. Furthermore as I said in my first comment-muslim women face far more severe repercussions often without any justice. So whatever the plight of Western women, there are avenues for help-not so much in Muslim countries. And while some ladies have indeed put it on out of choice, the majority do not.

    • Not that I am dismissing your points ladies. Very good points, but pointing out Western society’s issues is a bit of strawman and doesn’t change the problems in ours. Even a recent Nasheed I listened to was a rap about hijab called the ‘queens of islam’ and itself blamed western women for being raped because of what they wore :/

  • I know Muslim women who wish to dress modestly but their husbands discourage them and so they choose to not do it. I also know non Muslim and non Muslim women who have excessive pressure to look pretty and dress provactively because of their husbands… so you see women are subject to pressures irrespective of where they come from. It’s just a different kind depending on the culture/subculture. That is the unfortunate part. I chose to wear hijab myself after I moved to the west almost after a year. Moving out of the society I grew up in helped me make that decision for myself. I had a hard time when I first went back to visit. Because I knew exactly how I am being perceived. So you see these social pressures exist for women… for all women unfortunately.

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